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Buckner, and F. The methods of reporting radiation doses have changed over the years. Throughout the s, researchers tended to report the dose in roentgens "R" or "r" , which represented the amount of radiation emanating from the source; from the s through the present, researchers reported the dose in rad also known as centigrays , which represent the amount of radiation absorbed by the body.

For x rays, the rem --for roentgen equivalent man --is equivalent to a rad. A given air dose roentgen of radiation is generally equivalent to a lesser body dose rad.

For example, R air dose was reported in one experiment as approximately equivalent to rad body dose. Fred A. Mettler, Jr. Upton, Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation, 2d ed. Philadelphia: W. Saunders Co. One of the difficulties in reporting the chance of death at a given dose is a confusion between the use of air or skin dose as opposed to body or midline tissue dose the former is generally significantly higher than the latter , and whether or not medical care is provided.

Many investigators fail to indicate clearly what type of dose they are using. Mettler and Upton report that "[i]t is probable that with appropriate medical treatment, the LD50 [lethal dose for 50 percent of recipients] skin dose may be in the range of 6 Gy rad or an MTD [midline tissue dose] of 3.

Chapter 12: The Marshallese

Fred G. Medinger and Lloyd F. The investigators used a kilovolt KV machine and doses up to R. The dose that would cause severe bone marrow damage and be potentially lethal was considered to be between and roentgens.

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This figure can vary depending on the length, frequency, and intensity of the dose; for example, a single dose of R will generally cause more severe reactions than five doses of 40 R spaced over one or two weeks. Robert S. Low-Beer and Robert S. Alan Gregg, M. Stone, 20 October "The secrecy with which some of the work. UCLAA , 1. Robert Stone, M. UCLAA , 3. Medinger and Craver, "Total Body Irradiation," The first group consisted of eight persons who had neoplasms that could not be cured but still were not extensive enough to influence general health.

The second group consisted of three persons who had illnesses that were generalized and chronic in nature [two had arthritis]. The third group consisted of three normal volunteers from among the personnel of the Metallurgical Laboratory. DOEA , 1. However, we feel that this objection is outweighed by the advantages to be gained by making this information available to technically trained personnel. Gregg to Stone, 20 October , 1.

For example, M. Soden et al. Stone to Gregg, 4 November , 2. In a subsequent paper, Stone cited Jenner's experiments with smallpox, Walter Reed's experiments with yellow fever, and World War II experiments with malaria on prisoners as examples.

Stone also sought to justify the use of normal humans on national security grounds: "The information desired is sufficiently important to the safety of the U. DOEC-1 , 6. ACBM, transcript of proceedings of 3 April Stone noted that "volunteering exists when a person is able to say Yes or No without fear of being punished or of being deprived of privileges due him in the ordinary course of events. DOEC-1 , 4. Stone, 31 January , 3. See also Donald A. Baverstock and J.

Leukaemia/Bone Marrow Transplant 4: Total Body Irradiation

The BEIR V leukemia model includes both a linear and quadratic term in dose, the latter dominating the risk above 90 rad. For a single exposure to 10 rad, the BEIR report gives an estimated excess relative risk of 15 percent lifetime, averaging over ages at exposure. Extrapolating this figure linearly to rad would produce an excess relative risk of 2. This estimate is in perfect agreement with the observed and fitted risks among the atomic bomb survivors at rad, as plotted by Pierce and Vaeth.

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For exposures at particular ages and expressed at particular follow-up times, the relative increase can be either larger or smaller than this figure. DODA , Marion W. DOEB-1 , Louis Hempelmann of Rochester, Dr. Robert Loeb of Columbia, Dr. Shields Warren of the DBM. DODA-1 , Interview of Colonel John Pickering by Dr. Wilson F. DODA-1 , 2. At least four of the five DOD institutions used the new, high-energy radiation sources--cobalt 60 or megavoltage x rays.

The available data did not make clear what type of unit Sloan-Kettering used.

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John A. Recommend approval. DODA , 77 emphasis added. The results were published in Lowell S. Miller, Gilbert H. Fletcher, and Herbert B. He was answered in the negative. DODA-1 , 7. The report also states that "[a]t the time of irradiation, these patients were still able to walk and perform light physical tasks. Attachment, Lester J. Peters, Division of Radiotherapy, M. Robert B. DODC-1 , One Air Force reviewer stressed that "the patients cannot be considered as normal people.


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Even the study investigator warned that "the application of these results to operational problems should be made with cautious regard for the medical status of the subjects and the limited relevance of experimental criteria. DODA-2 , 6. The researchers noted that their paper deals only with "those aspects of the problem which are of general radiobiological interest; a strictly clinicotherapeutic evaluation will be given elsewhere.

It is not known if such a therapeutic evaluation was ever completed, and none has been located to date. The report states that 30 percent claimed subjective improvement, but that this was possibly due to psychological rather than clinical factors. They cautioned, however, that the condition of terminally ill patients may increase their sensitivity to both acute and longer-term radiation symptoms. Colonel Robert B. William C.

#002: More than 2000 Documents prior to 1972 on Bioeffects of Radio Frequency Radiation

TV : The Parting of the Ways. One visible difference between humans and Time Lords was the eye. TV : Doctor Who While the human eye was just a dish of light-sensitive cells, leaving the brain to do all of the processing, the Time Lord retina was capable of thinking on its own. As a result, on Gallifrey , the retina replaced fingers as the main method of communicating with machines.

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Antigone 's dark eyes were flecked with the tell-tale purple of the Homeworld high-caste. However, Time Lords' physical forms are only fragments of much vaster multi-dimensional ones existing in a realm invisible to humans; this aspect is able to create coincidences around a Time Lord. Gallifreyans were, on the whole, extremely tough and resilient. An average Gallifreyan was superior to a human at their peak.

Gallifreyans could survive some falls which would shatter the bones of humans. The Tenth Doctor survived a fall from a low flying spaceship through a glass skylight and was able to stand and move afterwards. TV : Logopolis. If pushed from a height into a liquid, as the Fifth Doctor was during a scuffle in the reactor room of Sea Base 4 when a guard was fighting him on a gangway over the cooling tank, a Time Lord body was capable of protecting them, sealing up the lungs to conserve air for a short period.

TV : Oxygen They could also survive extreme heat. TV : The End of the World They could even survive the subzero temperatures and extremely low pressure of vacuum for around six minutes, TV : Four to Doomsday , The Doctor, the Widow and the Wardrobe and survive electric shocks that would be fatal to humans.