Manual Java Programming 10-Minute Solutions

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The ConfigFile class provides simple functionality, but I often use it in my own work when program configuration data is either too complex or too structured to easily express as Java properties.


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A classic problem is storing data in a proprietary data format and later not having an application that can read the data. Using self-describing XML avoids this problem. As you saw earlier in Solution 10, the order of event processing for an XML element will be: Process start of element You capture the element name and the attributes if any and store this data in ConfigFileSaxHandler instance variables currentElementName and currentAttributes.

Java Basics

Increment the counter depth ConfigFileSaxHandler instance variable. Process character data The character data for elements often has extra white space characters so you use the Java String trim method to eliminate extra white space characters at the beginning and end of the character data. Process end of element You decrement the element depth counter and then use this depth counter to make sure that the current element is a top-level element that is, directly contained by the document root element. Save all data collected by this element in the parent ConfigFile instance that was passed to the inner class ConfigFileSaxHandler class constructor.

In the ConfigFile class, this state information is the XML element depth and the name of the current element. Because of the similarity to the TestSAX example, we will look at just a few implementation issues. This can be an issue with very large XML files. However, you see in this example that some storage is required for storing data during the SAX event handling methods in an ArrayList instance.

Most applications that use SAX event-based parsing store at most a subset of the data in the original XML input stream. TransformerConfigurationException, java. Here we will look at a simple example and book. I will start by showing you the example XML input file test. The file xslt. The XSLT processor book. You have only looked at a few examples here; the interested reader is encouraged to work through a complete XSLT tutorial. If you use the Apache Jakarta ant build tool, the JAXB reference implementation integrates well with the ant build process.

You can download Zeus from zeus.

The generated Java classes are self contained—no Zeus libraries are required at runtime. Zeus is lightweight; I like it and I think that you also will find it to be a useful tool. Zeus also integrates well with the Apache Jakarta ant build tool. If not, I strongly recommend that you start using ant to automate building Java programs, automatically run JUnit a testing tool tests, build deployable JAR files, and so on.

Starting in the top-level source directory for the examples in this book that is, the directory that contains the subdirectories S01, S02, etc.

This command generates six Java source files in the package S There is no reason that you ever need to read the Java source code generated by Zeus, unless you are curious. All you need to do is write code that uses this generated code. The example file ZeusTest. When you add a new employee, you use the method addEmployee. The generated class Company also provides the method marshal that is used to save the modified Company instance you added a new employee to a new XML file company2. If you are unfamiliar with XML Schemas, please refer to the material at www. Sybex, Like the generated files produced by Zeus, you will probably never have look at this generated code, unless you are curious.

TRUE ; marshaller. Java and XML is a powerful combination.

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In the next chapter, you will see how the use of XML allows you to communicate with other programs written in different programming languages and running on different operating systems. The message here is clear: XML is a flexible and self-describing notation for storing and transmitting data. Certainly, converting between XML and Java objects is not computationally free, but the flexibility of using XML seems like a fair tradeoff for a slight cost in computing resources.

Remote Procedure Calls RPC are procedure calls to processes running on different computers over a network.

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The website www. In the example, we assume that the test remote procedure takes three arguments: a book. The example file ExampleXmlRpcServer. The arguments for service requests are always passed in a Java vector. In the local method testMethod, we assume that the three methods are a String, a Double, and an Integer, and we cast them appropriately when accessing the elements of vector v. Using the built-in web server class with this handler class is simple.

For a general web service that you want to publish to anyone on the Internet, omit both of the setParanoid and acceptClient calls. For example, we could name the remote object Test3 by using ws. This refers to the local computer. If for example, the web service was a server with the domain name aservername.


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You always need to define a vector to hold the arguments, fill the vector appropriately, and then use the XmlRpcClientLite method execute to call the remote web service. SOAP is the most capable and flexible technique that you will use in this chapter, but it is also the most complex in terms of platform requirements memory and CPU and required support software. In this solution, you will implement web services using HTTP GET requests to a server that parses a function name and optional named parameter values from the request and then returns an XML payload to the requestor. You will not use any libraries except the standard Java socket libraries to implement this: a server framework will be implemented in about lines of Java code.

Customizing this framework for a specific web services application requires only a few additional lines of code plus the application that you want to publish as a web service. As a simple example, consider this URI that requests the stock price for the stock ticker from a service running on the local system IP address The result is returned as an XML payload.

One great advantage of this simple scheme is that it is trivial to write a client for a service in any programming language that either supports HTTP connection operations or, at a minimum, sockets. Whatever your favorite, as a Java developer, you should have a full toolbox! I use the utilities wget, fetch, and curl, which are available under all common operating systems. You can experiment with this example and read the source code; here, we will just look at a few implementation details. Together, these two classes are only about lines of Java code.

This reference will call the method process defined in the class AbstractServer. The constructor for class ServerConnection creates a new thread and starts the thread after getting the input and output streams from the client socket input argument. In the next section, you will see how to customize this simple class framework by writing a subclass of AbstractServer. For your applications, you would write a subclass of AbstractServer that had a method getXmlPayload that actually performed a computation. Like the XML-RPC example in Solution 13, the getXmlPayload method could serve to process several different web services by checking the function name first argument to getXmlPayload and calling the appropriate local method based on this name.

This installation includes very good documentation on web services in general and GLUE in particular. UDDI is less frequently used and I will not cover it here. SOAP messages travel between end points that represent addresses of sender and receiver.

Java Programming Language

With the original socket connection open, the server determines which local service to use to process the incoming message and calculate a response SOAP message, that is then returned to the requestor using the socket connection. SOAP request and response payloads consist of three parts: SOAP envelope Specifies what is in the message and what object on the server should handle the message.

SOAP is extensible, so it must be possible to encode the data for arbitrary objects. Solution 16 has a discussion of serializing Java objects to XML. At a minimum, specifies a URI for the target object, a method name, and parameters for the method. You can safely use most scalar Java types like Strings and numbers for method arguments and return values. The use of simple arrays is also very portable between implementations. You will use this facility in an Axis-based example in Solution GLUE also provides the facility for dynamically generating bindings for a remote service by using the WSDL description for the service, and you will use this technique for this solution.

Usually, a WSDL document is generated for a specific web service also contains information book. WSDL is not really intended for human readers—that said, when I do look at automatically generated WSDL documents, the most interesting information is in the port information that specifies the signatures of exposed methods.

In the following listing, you can see that the remote object AxisTest has a method useLibToAdd with method arguments f1 and f2.